Skip to main content

The effects of socioeconomic status, oral and dental health practices, and nutritional status on dental health in 12-year-old school children

Abstract

Background

This study aims to examine the effects of socioeconomic status, oral, and dental health practices, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements on dental health in 12-year-old schoolchildren.

Methods

The sample of the study consisted of a total of 254 children (44.1% boys and 55.9% girls) in three schools which were identified as low, moderate and high socioeconomic status. The data were collected by face-to-face interviews via a questionnaire form. Dentist determined DMFT and dmft indices of the children. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) package program was used to analyze the data.

Results

It was found that 70.9% of the children have dental caries on their permanent teeth. The number of girls with caries in permanent teeth and boys with caries in milk teeth was higher (p < 0.05). The frequency of seeing a dentist and changing toothbrush vary according to the socioeconomic status (p < 0.05). Oral and dental health indicators were determined to be affected by the frequency and duration of tooth brushing (p < 0.05). It was found that dmft values of the children consuming molasses and table sugar are lower (p < 0.05). There is a negative correlation between oral and dental health indicators and anthropometric measurements.

Conclusion

Dietary habits, anthropometric measurements, oral and dental health practices, gender, and socioeconomic status were shown to be effective on caries. Caries risk assessment and determining leading risk factors enable effective prevention programs to be implemented at different levels.

Background

Oral and dental health is an integral part of complete health and well-being [1]. In most developing low-income countries, the prevalence of dental caries is high and more than 90% of caries are reported to be untreated [2]. Dental caries is the most common progressive chronic disease in school-age children with an increasing prevalence as children grow up [3, 4]. Recent trends relating to the increase in the prevalence of dental caries in children emphasize the need for more comprehensive measures as it is a preventable disease [5]. Oral and dental health in school-age children totally depends on oral hygiene behavior of children and their parents, dietary habits, parental education level, socioeconomic status, regular dental examination, adequate fluoride supplementation, oral microflora, age, and other demographic and cultural characteristics [3, 6, 7].

Caries risk assessment and determining leading risk factors enable effective prevention programs to be implemented at different levels (families, schools, institutions, local communities, etc.). In assessing a caries risk, a single method or model cannot simultaneously measure host resistance, microbial pathogens, and carcinogenicity of the diet. Therefore, caries risk should be assessed by analyzing and integrating several causal factors [8]. This study aims to examine the effects of socioeconomic status, oral and dental health practices, dietary habits, and anthropometric measurements on dental health in 12-year-old school children, and unlike the other studies, many factors involved in the etiology of dental caries were assessed together.

Methods

Research sample and design

The sample of this study was composed of a total of 254 voluntary 12-year-old school children (44.1% boys and 55.9% girls) enrolled in three different middle schools (low, moderate, and high socioeconomic level) in Turkey. The World Health Organization develops basic methods and criteria for use in oral and dental health field surveys and recommends the use of specific age or age bands to make comparisons between countries. It is stated in the “basic principles” of the World Health Organization that it is sufficient to select 5 years of age to determine the condition of milk teeth and to select sample among 12- and 15-year-old children who have different risks to determine the condition of permanent teeth in childhood. This study was carried out with 12-year-old children due to the fact that all permanent teeth except for the third molars should erupt until 12 years of age and this age group is a global indicator age group for monitoring international comparisons and disease trends [9]. The study was conducted with the approval of the Ethics Committee of Mardin Artuklu University dated 11.01.2018 and no. 2018/01-3.

Data collection tools

The data were collected by face-to-face interviews via a questionnaire form including socioeconomic status, oral and dental health practices, dietary habits, and anthropometric measurement. Children’s height (cm), body weight (kg), waist circumference (cm), hip circumference (cm), upper middle arm circumference (cm), triceps skinfold thickness (mm), and biceps skinfold thickness (mm) were taken in accordance with the technique. Waist circumference ≥ 84.5 cm for boys and ≥ 81.9 cm for girls were considered “risk”, but the ones below these values were considered “normal” [10]. Waist-to-height ratios were classified as “take care” if < 0.4, “normal” if 0.4–0.5, “take care” if 0.5–0.6, and “take action” if ≥ 0.6 [11]. Body mass index (kg\m2) was classified as < 3 “too weak”, ≥ 3–< 15 “weak”, ≥ 15–< 85 “normal”, ≥ 85–< 97 “overweight”, and ≥ 97 “obese” according to the 12-year-old table of percentiles [12].

Clinical examinations were performed by a dentist to assess the oral and dental health of the children. The dentist determined the number of teeth affected by caries and its results for each child and marked them in the oral examination form. The sums of the number of decayed teeth (DT), missing teeth (MT) and filled teeth (FT) (decayed, missing, and filled teeth: DMFT), and teeth surfaces (decayed, missing, and filled surfaces: DMFS) were calculated. DMFT and DMFS indices of the children were determined as a result of these calculations. dmft and dmfs indices were used for milk teeth. The missing teeth were not included in the examination for milk teeth. The dental caries levels of the children were determined using WHO classification based on the means DMFT and dmft (< 1.2 “very low”, 1.2–2.6 “low”, 2.7–4.4 “moderate”, 4.5–6.5 “high”, and > 6.5 “very high”) [9].

Statistical analysis

SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) package program was used to analyze the data. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact chi-square tests were performed to determine whether there was a significant relationship between qualitative variables. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the means between the two groups that did not show normal distribution, and mean (X̅), median, standard deviation (SD), and upper and lower values were shown. Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to analyze the means among the three and more groups. Kruskal-Wallis hypothesis test was applied to uncover which group caused the difference. Spearman correlation was used to determine the relationship between the factors affecting oral and dental health indicators. Statistical significance was evaluated at p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The confidence interval for all statistical tests was adopted as 95.0%.

Results

A total of 254 12-year-old children (44.1% boys and 55.9% girls) participated in the study. It was found that 70.9% of the children have dental caries on their permanent teeth and 44.1% of them have at least one caries on their milk teeth. Moreover, it was found that the number of girls who have caries on their permanent teeth and boys who have caries on their milk teeth is higher (p < 0.05). dmft and dmfs indices were found to be very low in 47.2% and 75.2% of the children, respectively. It was discovered that low DMFT rates (girls 20.5%, boys 9.8%) were higher in girls and high dmft rates (girls 2.1%, male, 9.8%) were higher in boys (p < 0.05) (Table 1).

Table 1 Classification of indicators of permanent and milk teeth of children

It was found that nearly all of the children brush their teeth (96.1%) and the number of those who do not brush their teeth (7.9%) is higher among ones the with low socioeconomic status (p < 0.05). 34.3% of the students reported that they brush their teeth once a day and 21.7% reported they sometimes brush their teeth. The number of those who brush their teeth several times a week (10.1%) is higher among the ones with moderate socioeconomic status and the number of those who brush their teeth three times a day (6.3%) is higher among the ones with high socioeconomic status (p < 0.05). Nearly half of the children (49.2%) stated that they first saw a dentist at the age of 6–10 and 14.2% reported that they have never seen a dentist. It was found that the number of those who see a dentist 1–2 times a year (30.0%), have previously received oral and dental health education (65.6%) and change their toothbrush every 3 months (43.8%) is higher among the ones with high socioeconomic status (p < 0.05). It was discovered that 39.0% of children have harmful oral and dental health habits in which lip bite (62.6%) is the leading (Table 2).

Table 2 Information on oral and dental health of children

There are 1.7 ± 1.78 decay, 0.1 ± 0.35 missing, and 0.2 ± 0.69 fillings in permanent teeth of the participants. The mean numbers of decayed and filled milk teeth are 1.0 ± 1.49 and 0.5 ± 0.36, respectively (data not shown). The mean DMFT is 2.0 ± 1.90, and dmft is 1.0 ± 1.57. dt, dmft, ds, and dmfs values of boys were found to be higher than of girls (p<0.05). It was determined that those who brush their teeth, brush their teeth after the meal and before bedtime, brush in a circular style, and change their toothbrush every 3 months have better oral examinations (p > 0.05). Those who brush their teeth three times a day (DMFT 1.3 ± 1.42, dmft 0.0 ± 0.00) have better permanent (p > 0.05) and milk teeth (p < 0.05) examination than sometimes brushers (DMFT 2.4 ± 2.02, dmft 1.5 ± 1.93). According to the brushing duration, those who brush their teeth for 2–3 min have the minimum mean DMFT values (1.8 ± 1.70) (p > 0.05) and it was found that those who brush more than 3 min (0.2±0.58) have lower mean dmft values than those who do not know their brushing duration (1.9±1.20) (p < 0.05) (Table 3).

Table 3 Oral Health Indicators According To Gender and Oral/Dental Health Practices

Those consuming crackers, cornflakes, bread, flavored milk, dried fruit, instant fruit juice, fizzy drinks, iced teas, energy drinks, dessert, candy\delight etc., pastry products, jam, table sugar, jelly food, and sugary chewing gum have higher mean DMFT values than those who do not consume such foods and drinks, but the differences are not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Considering the mean dmft values, those who do not consume crackers, chips, bread, dried fruit, instant fruit juice, fruity drinks, fizzy drinks, energy drinks, dessert, cookies, cakes, pudding, biscuits, chocolate, table sugar, jelly foods, and sugary chewing gum have lower mean dmft values and the differences are statistically significant only for molasses and table sugar (p < 0.05) (Table 4). The mean duration of breastfeeding of children is 14.1 ± 7.46 months and the mean time of starting complementary feeding is 6.1 ± 1.64 months. It was determined that children with low socioeconomic status have less breastfeeding time (p < 0.05), and oral and dental health indicators do not differ according to breastfeeding time and the time of starting complementary feeding (p > 0.05) (data not shown).

Table 4 Oral health indicators of children according to their nutrient consumption status

It was discovered that there is a negative relationship between waist-to-height ratio and FT; between waist circumference and FT and DMFT; between hip circumference and DMFT (p < 0.05). It was also found that there is a negative relationship between dt and body mass index, hip circumference, upper middle arm circumference, biceps skinfold thickness, and triceps skinfold thickness (p < 0.01); and between ft and hip circumference (p < 0.05). There is a negative relationship between dmft and Body Mass Index, waist circumference, hip circumference, upper middle arm circumference, biceps skinfold thickness, and triceps skinfold thickness (p < 0.01) (Table 5).

Table 5 Correlation between oral health indicators and children’s anthropometric measurements, socioeconomic status, and educational status of parents

Discussion

The present study was conducted with a total of 254 12-year-old children enrolled in three different middle schools (high, moderate, and low socioeconomic status) to examine the effects of socioeconomic status, oral and dental health practices, dietary habits, and anthropometric measurements on oral and dental health.

Oral and dental health in school-age children totally depends on such factors like oral hygiene behavior of children, dietary habits, socioeconomic status, regular dental examination, age, and other demographic and cultural characteristics [3, 6, 7]. Socioeconomic factors have become increasingly scrutinized in studies as they affect the prevalence of dental caries, oral health practices, and parental knowledge on oral and dental health [13, 14]. It is stated that families with high socioeconomic status behave more conscious about their children’s dental health [15]. In this study, it was shown that factors affecting oral and dental health, such as tooth brushing practices, age, and frequency of seeing a dentist and oral and dental health education vary by the one’s socioeconomic status. Oral and dental health practices were found to be better in the children of families with high socioeconomic status (Table 2). Similarly, in other studies, children with high socioeconomic status are more likely to see a dentist [4, 16] and to have higher rates of regular brushing [17]. The fact that children from higher-income households have more chances to access to dental care, including a more specific diagnostic assessment and have one or more filled teeth explains the difference in oral and dental health by the ones’ socioeconomic status. Higher prevalence of caries in lower socioeconomic status may be due to lack of prevention and treatment services most of the time. It is important that both children and their parents with low socioeconomic level are educated in oral health, awareness raising, and guided to make more use of treatment services.

Oral and dental diseases are seen different rates in every society and ages. The World Health Organization and the World Dental Federation (FDI) recommended that DMFT should not be more than 3 for 12 years until 2000, as one of the global goals for oral and dental health [18]. In this study, the mean DMFT value is 2.0 ± 1.90 and the recommended goal was reached. Considering certain studies conducted by countries, the mean DMFT values were determined as 4.8 ± 3.22 in Bosnia and Herzegovina [8], 0.14 in Nigeria [17], 3.3 ± 2.3 in Russia and 0.5 ± 0.8 in Norway [7], and 1.64 in Thailand [19]. Dental caries were determined in 70.9% of the children in the general sample, 61.6% of boys and 78.2% of girls (p < 0.05) (Table 2). There was no significant difference between gender and the mean DMFT\dmft value which was found to be 1.9 ± 2.2 in 12-year-old children in the Study for Oral and Dental Health Profile of Turkey [20]. In parallel with this study, although there are other studies revealing that the mean DMFT in girls is higher [3, 21], it was determined in some studies that oral and dental health indicators were similar by gender [7, 16, 22]. It is stated that the prevalence of caries may be higher due to the earlier ages for dentition in girls and the emergence of periodontal problems due to hormonal changes in puberty period.

Since dental caries has a multifaceted etiology including general health, nutrition, plaque, saliva secretion, type and amount of microorganism, sensitivity of host, oral hygiene habits, use of fluoride, social and behavioral factors, any relationship between oral and dental hygiene practices and caries is difficult to be detected [23]. In this study, it was found that the indicators for milk teeth of those who have higher tooth brushing time and frequency are better (p < 0.05) (Table 3). Proper oral and dental hygiene is also effective in preventing many diseases that are not associated with caries. The most common diseases such as caries and periodontal diseases are caused by poor oral hygiene practices as well as other factors [24], and children are important to be educated in subjects such as brushing style, duration, and frequency.

Dietary habits play an important role in general health status and oral health [25]. In one study, the predominant factor in caries risk profile was shown to be diet [8]. In this study, the mean DMFT\dmft values of the children consuming foods with high cariogenic potential were determined likely to be high (Table 4). In a study conducted to examine the effect of backward dietary habits of children on dental health, those who consumed foods increasing the risk of dental caries more than three times a day at the age of one and those who consumed candy more than once a week at the age of 3 were found to have higher number of decayed and filled teeth at the age of 15 [26]. The negative relationship between nutritional status and caries is explained by main meals and snacks. Main meals are stated to contain higher protein and fat and lower sugar than snacks so that snacks are associated with caries. While being exposed to sugary and starchy foods during meals reduces the risk of caries, it was revealed that high sugar consumption with snacks increase such risk.

Dental caries, obesity, and malnutrition are global diseases with adverse effects on health [27, 28]. As there are common risk factors for these diseases, the relationship between body weight and tooth decay has been the subject of many studies [29,30,31,32]. People who have an unbalanced diet with low nutritional value and high sugar and energy content are often affected by both malnutrition and caries. In addition, it is stated that there is a positive relationship between obesity and dental caries with increasing food and refined food consumption and consumption frequency. Therefore, it was investigated whether there is a causal relationship between dental diseases and anthropometric measurements or whether they share the same risk factors [2]. In this study, a negative relationship was found between anthropometric measurements and oral and dental health indicators (Table 5). Contradictory results were found in both research and review studies on body weight and oral health in children. Some studies showed a positive correlation between body weight and tooth decay [26, 33,34,35], some of them revealed a negative relationship [3, 6, 36], and others found no relationship between them [16, 37,38,39]. Besides, different results were reached according to different age groups [19, 40]. A negative relationship between anthropometric measurements and tooth decay may be caused by the risk of a weak immune system and dietary habits based on foods with low nutritional values and high energy foods in children with low body weight. The difficulty in studying the relationship between dental caries and obesity is due to the fact that many factors need to be measured at the same time in a standard way.

Conclusions

It was revealed in this study that dietary habits, anthropometric measurements, oral and dental health practices, gender, and socioeconomic status are effective on caries. It is recommended that children and parents with low socioeconomic status should be given education on oral and dental health practices and guidance to dental care services should be increased. Regulation of dietary habits of children is considerable both for anthropometric measurements and prevention of dental caries. In assessing the effect of dietary habits on dental health, the amount and frequency of consumed foods should be examined in more detail.

Availability of data and materials

Please contact the corresponding author for data requests.

Abbreviations

DT:

Decayed teeth

MT:

Missing teeth

FT:

Filled teeth

DMFT:

Decayed, missing, and filled teeth

DMFS:

Decayed, missing, and filled surfaces

SPSS:

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

FDI:

World Dental Federation

References

  1. Hafez S (2017) The association of dental caries and periapical lesions with anthropometric measurements in postpartum women in Mangochi, Malawi. Master’s Thesis University of Tampere School of Health Sciences.

  2. Moynihan P, Petersen PE (2004) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of dental diseases. Public Health Nutr 7(1a):201–226

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Koksal E, Tekcicek M, Yalcin SS, Tugrul B, Yalcin S, Pekcan G (2011) Association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in Turkish schoolchildren. Cent Eur J Public Health 19(3):147–151. https://doi.org/10.21101/cejph.a3648

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Edelstein BL (2002) Disparities in oral health and access to care: Findings of national surveys. Ambul Pediatr 2(2):141–147. https://doi.org/10.1367/1539-4409(2002)002<0141:diohaa>2.0.co;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Touger-Decker R, Mobley C (2013) Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: oral health and nutrition. J Acad Nutr Diet 113(5):693–701

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bafti LS, Hashemipour MA, Poureslami H, Hoseinian Z (2015) Relationship between body mass index and tooth decay in a population of 3–6-year-old children in Iran. Int J Dent:1–5. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/126530

  7. Koposova N, Widstrom E, Eisemann M, Koposov R, Eriksen HM (2010) Oral health and quality of life in Norwegian and Russian schoolchildren: A pilot study. Stomatologija 12(1):10–16 PMID: 20440091

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Amila Z, Sedin K, Maida G (2007) Caries risk assessment in Bosnian children using Cariogram computer model. Int Dent J 57(3):177–183. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1875-595x.2007.tb00122.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. World Health Organization (WHO) (2013) Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods (5th Edition), pp 1–137 WHO Library Cataloguing, Available from: http://www.icd.org/content/publications/WHO-Oral-Health-Surveys-Basic-Methods-5th-Edition-2013.pdf

    Google Scholar 

  10. Cruz ML, Goran MI (2004) The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. Curr Diab Rep 4(1):53–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-004-0012-x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Ashwell M, Hsieh SD (2005) Six reasons why the waist-to-height ratio is a rapid and effective global indicator for health risks of obesity and how its use could simplify the international public health message on obesity. Int J Food Sci Nutr 56(5):303–307. https://doi.org/10.1080/09637480500195066

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. World Health Organization (WHO) (2007) WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. Growth reference data for 5-19 years. Available from: https://www.who.int/toolkits/growth-reference-data-for-5to19-years.

  13. Kato H, Tanaka K, Shimizu K, Nagata C, Furukawa S, Arakawa M, Miyake Y (2017) Parental occupations, educational levels, and income and prevalence of dental caries in 3-year-old Japanese children. Environ Health Prev Med 22(80):1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12199-017-0688-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Popoola BO, Denloye OO, Iyun OI (2013) Influence of parental socioeconomic status on caries prevalence among children seen at the university college hospital, Ibadan. Ann Ibadan Postgraduate Med 11(2):81–86 PMID: 25161425

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Akinci Z (2008). Karma Dişlenme Dönemindeki Öğrencilerin Ağiz-Diş Sağliği Durumunun ve Bu Konudaki Eğitim Gereksinimlerinin Belirlenmesi. Master’s Thesis, University of Ankara.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Adeniyi AA, Oyapero AO, Ekekezie OO, Braimoh MO (2016) Dental caries and nutritional status of school children in Lagos, Nigeria–a preliminary survey. J West Afr College Surg 6(3):15–38 PMCID: PMC5555729

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Adekoya-Sofowora CA, Nasir WO, Oginni AO, Taiwo M (2006) Dental caries in 12-year-old suburban Nigerian school children. Afr Health Sci 6(3):145–150 PMCID: PMC1831881

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. Federation Dentaire Internationale/World Health Organization (FDI\WHO) (1982) Global goals for oral health in the year 2000. Int Dent J 32(1):74–77

    Google Scholar 

  19. Narksawat K, Tonmukayakul U, Boonthum A (2009) Association between nutritional status and dental caries in permanent dentition among primary schoolchildren aged 12-14 years, Thailand. South East Asian J Trop Med Publ Health 40(2):338–344 PMID: 25182399

    Google Scholar 

  20. Gokalp S, Dogan B, Tekcicek M, Berberoglu A, Unluer S (2007) Bes, on iki ve on bes yas cocuklarin agiz dis sagligi profili, Türkiye-2004. J Hacettepe Facult Dent 31(4):3–10

    Google Scholar 

  21. Chakravarthy PK, Chenna D, Chenna V (2012) Association of anthropometric measures and dental caries among a group of adolescent cadets of Udupi district, South India. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 13(5):256–260. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-9668.107284

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Esa R, Razak IA (2018) Dental fluorosis and caries status among 12-13 year-old schoolchildren in Klang district, Malaysia. Ann Dent Univ Malaya 8(1):20–24

    Google Scholar 

  23. Karadas M, Tahan E, Köse O, Demirbuğa S (2014) 13-20 yas grubu bireylerde dis fircalama sikliği ile oral hijyen ve dmft arasindaki iliskinin degerlendirilmesi. Turkiye Klinikleri J Dent Sci 20(3):177–181

    Google Scholar 

  24. Ljaljević A, Matijević S, Terzić N, Anđelić J, Mugoša B (2012) Significance of proper oral hygiene for health condition of mouth and teeth. Vojnosanit Pregl 69(1):16–21

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Morozova SY, Misova E, Foltasova L, Sedlata-Juraskova E, Tvrda V (2016) Food components in oral health. Int J Pharmaceut Sci Invent 5(6):42–47

  26. Alm A, Fåhraeus C, Wendt LK, Koch G, Boel A-G, Birkhed D (2008) Body adiposity status in teenagers and snacking habits in early childhood in relation to approximal caries at 15 years of age. Int J Paediatr Dent 18(3):189–196. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263X.2007.00906.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Weraarchakul W, Weraarchakul W (2017) Relationship between nutritional status and dental caries in elementary students, Samliam Municipal School, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. J Med Assoc Thail 100(8):232–239

    Google Scholar 

  28. Vázquez-Nava F, Vázquez-Rodríguez EM, Saldívar-González AH, Lin-Ochoa D, Martínez-Perales GM, Joffre-Velázquez VM (2010) Association between obesity and dental caries in a group of preschool children in Mexico. J Public Health Dent 70(2):124–130. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-7325.2009.00152.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Dikshit P, Limbu S, Bhattarai R (2018) Relationship of body mass index with dental caries among children attending pediatric dental department in an institute. J Nepal Med Assoc 56(210):582–586. https://doi.org/10.31729/jnma.3517

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Kumar S, Kroon J, Lalloo R, Kulkarni S, Johnson NW (2017) Relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children, and the influence of socio-economic status. Int Dent J 67(2):91–97. https://doi.org/10.1111/idj.12259

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Loyola-Rodriguez JP, Villa-Chavez C, Patiño-Marin N, Aradillas-Garcia C, Gonzalez C, De La Cruz-Mendoza E (2011) Association between caries, obesity and insulin resistance in Mexican adolescents. J Clin Pediatr Dent 36(1):49–54. https://doi.org/10.17796/jcpd.36.1.e25411r576362262

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Sadeghi M, Alizadeh F (2007) Association between dental caries and body mass index-for-age among 6-11-year-old children in Isfahan in 2007. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 1(3):119–124. https://doi.org/10.5681/joddd.2007.021

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. Honne T, Pentapati K, Kumar N, Acharya S (2012) Relationship between obesity/overweight status, sugar consumption and dental caries among adolescents in South India. Int J Dent Hyg 10(4):240–244. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-5037.2011.00534.x

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Gerdin EW, Angbratt M, Aronsson K, Eriksson E, Johansson I (2008) Dental caries and body mass index by socio-economic status in Swedish children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 36(5):459–465. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2007.00421.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Bailleul-Forestier I, Lopes K, Souames M, Azoguy-Levy S, Frelut ML, Boy-Lefevre ML (2007) Caries experience in a severely obese adolescent population. Int J Paediatr Dent 17(5):358–363. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263x.2007.00848.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Lueangpiansamut J, Chatrchaiwiwatana S, Muktabhant B, Inthalohit W (2012) Relationship between dental caries status, nutritional status, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages consumption among primaryschoolchildren grade 4-6 in Nongbua Khamsaen school, Na Klang district, Nongbua Lampoo Province, Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 95(8):1090–1097 PMID: 23061315

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Almerich-Torres T, Bellot-Arcís C, Almerich-Silla JM (2017) Relationship between caries, body mass index and social class in Spanish children. Gac Sanit 31(6):499–504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2016.09.005

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Upadhyay S, Srii R, Srivastava S, Karki S (2016) Relationship of early childhood caries and body mass index in children attending a tertiary healthcare center of Nepal. Int J Sci Res 5(12):12–14

    Google Scholar 

  39. Costacurta M, Direnzo L, Bianchi A, Fabiocchi F, De Lorenzo A, Docimo R (2011) Obesity and dental caries in paediatric patients. A cross-sectional study. Eur J Paediatr Dent 12(2):112–116 PMID: 21668283

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Kesim S, Cicek B, Aral CA, Ozturk A, Mazicioglu MM, Kurtoglu S (2016) Oral health, obesity status and nutritional habits in Turkish children and adolescents: an epidemiological study. Balkan Med J 33(2):164–172. https://doi.org/10.5152/balkanmedj.2016.16699

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to all those who participated in the questionnaire survey and contributed their valuable thoughts and comments on this study.

Funding

No funding received.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

A.-C.J. and A.Y. contributed to the conception, design, data acquisition, analysis and interpretation, and drafted and critically revised the manuscript. O.A-O. contributed to the conception, design, and interpretation and critically revised the manuscript. All authors gave their final approval and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jiyan Aslan Ceylan.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The research protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Mardin Artuklu University dated 11.01.2018 and no. 2018/01-3. All participants provided informed consent.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Aslan Ceylan, J., Aslan, Y. & Ozcelik, A.O. The effects of socioeconomic status, oral and dental health practices, and nutritional status on dental health in 12-year-old school children. Egypt Pediatric Association Gaz 70, 13 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s43054-022-00104-3

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s43054-022-00104-3

Keywords

  • Anthropometry
  • Nutrition
  • Children
  • DMFT
  • Socioeconomic status