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Table 2 Vaccine examples showing decreased seroconversion in the elderly

From: Should we vaccinate the better seroconverters or the most vulnerable? Game changing insights for COVID-19 vaccine prioritization policies


Authors [reference number in text]



Goodwin et al. [20]

Antibody response to influenza vaccination in the elderly: a quantitative review

Meng et al. [21]

Immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in elderly people: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, and its association with real-world effectiveness

Zhang et al. [22]

Immunogenicity of H5N1 influenza vaccines in elderly adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Yao et al. [23]

Frailty is associated with impairment of vaccine-induced antibody response and increase in post-vaccination influenza infection in community-dwelling older adults

Hepatitis B

Havlichek et al. [25]

Age-related hepatitis B seroconversion rates in health care workers


Ceddia et al. [26]

Antibody response to rabies vaccine prepared in tissue cultures of human diploid cells and inactivated, evaluated in different classes of age

Mastroeni et al. [27]

Immune response of the elderly to rabies vaccines

Japanese encephalitis virus

Wagner et al. [29]

Age-related differences in humoral and cellular immune responses after primary immunisation: indications for stratified vaccination schedules


King et al. [30]

Total and functional antibody response to a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine among children

de Costa & Martins Carlos Klein [31]

Evaluation of the protective efficacy of an antimeningococcal vaccine for serogroups B and C Neisseria meningitidis infections in Brazil, 1990/92

Espín Ríos et al. [32]

Seroconversion and duration of immunity after vaccination against group C meningococcal infection in young children

Hepatitis A

Nalin et al. [33]

Worldwide experience with the CR326F-derived inactivated hepatitis A virus vaccine in pediatric and adult populations: an overview


André et al. [34]

Clinical assessment of the safety and efficacy of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine: rationale and summary of findings


Nader et al. [35]

Age-related differences in cell-mediated immunity to varicella-zoster virus among children and adults immunized with live attenuated varicella vaccine