Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic and baseline biochemical variables at time of admission

From: Outcome of the use of 0.9% saline versus 0.45% saline for fluid rehydration in moderate and severe diabetic ketoacidosis in children

Parameters Group 1 (0.9%)
(N=72)
Group 2 (0.45%)
(N=49)
P value
Age (years) (mean ± SD) 7.11 ± 3.77 7.39 ± 3.87 0.69
Sex
n (%)
 Male 39 (45.8%) 17 (34.7%) 0.03
 Female 33 (54.2%) 32 (65.3%)
Degree of dehydration
n (%)
 Moderate 17 (23.6%) 10 (20.4%) 0.43
 Severe 55 (76.4%) 39 (79.6%)
DKA presentation
n (%)
 Newly diagnosed 42 (41.7%) 24 (51%) 0.59
 Known to have diabetes 30 (58.3%) 25 (49%)
Shock therapy (ml/kg)
n (%)
 No 15 (20.8%) 25 (51%) 0.001
 10 ml/kg 15 (20.8%) 3 (6.1%)
 20 ml/kg 19 (26.4%) 4 (8.2%)
 30 ml/kg 23 (31.9%) 17 (34.7%)
Rate of fluids (maintenance + deficit)
ml/kg/h (mean ± SD)
99.93 ± 26.88 94.16 ± 31.13 0.34
Actual fluid intake (L) (median) 4.73 4.45 0.39
Patients received bicarbonate therapy 13 (18.1%) 11 (22.4%) 0.36
Mean insulin dose (IU/kg/h)
mean ± SD
 1st 6 h 0.11 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.01 0.80
 After 1st 6 h 0.11 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.02 0.48
Duration of DKA resolution (hours) (median, range) 14 (6–40) 10 (6–38) 0.43
Glucose (mg/dl) (mean ± SD) 532.67 ± 157 550.14 ± 139.64 0.53
Serum Na (meq/L) (mean ± SD) 133.58 ± 4.56 134.16 ± 4.24 0.47
Corrected Na (meq/L) (mean ± SD) 142.4 ± 4.54 143.12 ± 4.75 0.40
Serum CL(meq/L) (mean ± SD) 102.67 ± 5.02 102.91 ± 4.49 0.81
CL:Na ratio (mean ± SD) 0.77 ± 0.03 0.77 ± 0.18 0.97
BHOB (mmol/L) (mean ± SD) 5.44 ± 1.13 5.43 ± 1.55 0.95
PH (mean ± SD) 7.08 ± 0.099 7.06 ± 0.12 0.39
HCO3 (meq/L) (mean ± SD) 5.8 ± 2.5 6 ± 2.7 0.65
Anion gap (mean ± SD) 25.9 ± 4.4 24.6 ± 3.5 0.12
Creatinine (mg/dl) (mean ± SD) 0.75 ± 0.24 0.76 ± 0.31 0.81
Effective osmolality (mosmol/L)
(mean ± SD)
297.1 ± 11.9 300.9 ± 11.3 0.07
Severity of DKA
n (%)
 Moderate (n=49) 29 (40.3%) 20 (40.8%) 0.95
 Severe (n= 72) 43 (59.7%) 29 (59.2%)