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Table 4 Multilevel multiple linear regression analysis of variables associated with the sources of academic stress among adolescents in Qazvin, Iran (n = 1724)

From: Sources of academic stress among Iranian adolescents: a multilevel study from Qazvin City, Iran

Variables Financial issues Parents’ involvement Peer pressure School regulations Academic competition Interaction with teachers Future uncertainty Education system Home life Total academic stress
School-level
Male gender 0.52
(0.08, 0.93)*
1.31
(0.92, 1.70)***
0.68
(0.160, 1.20)**
− 0.63
(− 1.02, − 0.23)***
− 0.94
(− 1.57, − 0.30)**
− 0.56
(− 1.46, 0.34)
− 0.82
(− 1.73, 0.15)
Secondary educational period 0.71
(0.29, 1.13)**
1.24
(0.76, 1.70)***
− 1.91
(− 2.56, − 1.27)***
0.75
(0.37, 1.13)***
0.99
(0.37, 1.61)**
2.15
(1.27, 3.04)***
1..93
(1.02, 2.80)***
6.15
(2.81, 9.49)***
School type (ref: governmental)           
Special − 0.41
(− 0.94, 0.12)
0.85
(0.26, 1.44)**
0.27
(− 0.21, 0.75)
1.98
(0.88, 3.08)***
Private − 0.14
(− 0.74, 0.45)
   − 0.63
(− 1.28, 0.01)
− 0.82
(− 1.36, − 0.28)**
0.43
(− 0.77, 1.64)
Individual level           
Family SES (ref: high)           
Moderate 0.76
(0.37, 1.16)***
0.48
(0.02, 0.92)*
0.19
(− 1.36, 0.28)
1.01
(0.32, 1.70)**
2.55
(0.03, 5.08)*
Low 1.68
(1.24, 2.11)***
1.12
(0.65, 1.68)***
0.51
(0.16, 0.85)**
2.74
(1.99, 3.49)***
7.27
(4.61, 9.90)***
Father’s education (ref: illiterate )           
Primary/secondary school − 0.44
(− 1.83, 0.94)
− 0.83
(− 3.27, 1.59)
High school/diploma − 0.68
(− 2.06, 0.71)
− 1.22
(− 3.67, 1.22)
Bachelor − 0.90
(− 2.30, 0.49)
− 0.82
(− 3.29, 1.65)
Masters/Ph.D − 1.00
(− 2.43, 0.43)
− 1.52
(− 4.05, 0.99)
  1. SES socioeconomic status)
  2. *p < 0.05
  3. **p < 0.01
  4. ***p < 0.001