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Table 3 Multilevel bivariate linear regression analysis of variables associated with the sources of academic stress among adolescents in Qazvin City, Iran (n = 1724)

From: Sources of academic stress among Iranian adolescents: a multilevel study from Qazvin City, Iran

Variables   Financial
Pressure
Parents
involvement
Peer pressure School
regulations
Academic
competition
Teacher
interaction
Future
uncertainty
Educational
system
Home life Total academic stress
School level
Sex Female 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  Male 0.37
(− 0.17, 0.91)
1.31
(0.92, 1.71)***
0.65
(0.13, 1.15)*
0.02
(− 0.64, 0.69)
− 0.31
(− 1.18, 0.56)
0.73
(1.22, 0.23)**
1.07
(1.74, 0.39)**
− 0.79
(− 1.95, 0.37)
1.13
(2.23,0.04)*
− 1.64
(− 5.48, 2.19)
Educational period First 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  Secondary 0.65
(0.13, 1.15)*
− 0.18
(− 0.68, 0.32)
− 0.01
(− 0.53, 0.52)
1.25
(0.73, 1.78)***
1.91
(2.56,1.26)***
0.8
(0.35, 1.25)***
1.11
(0.45, 1.77)**
2.39
(1.42, 3.36)***
2.01
(1.04, 2.96)***
6.17
(2.76, 9.58)***
School type Governmental 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  Special 0.81
(1.42,0.20)**
− 0.06
(− 0.70, 0.58)
0.13
(− 0.53, 0.78)
1.04
(0.30, 1.78)**
0.49
(1.56, 0.57)
0.24
(− 0.34, 0.83)
0.11
(− 0.77, 1.00)
2.24
(0.93, 3.55)**
− 0.54
(− 1.92, 0.84)
1.87
(− 2.78, 6.52)
  Private 0.94
(1.61,0.28)**
− 0.01
(− 0.72, 0.68)
0.001
(− 0.72, 0.72)
− 0.53
(− 1.33, 0.27)
− 0.06
(− 1.22, 1.11)
0.97
(1.60,0.33)**
0.08
(− 0.89, 1.06)
0.55
(− 0.88, 1.98)
− 0.57
(− 2.06, 0.92)
− 2.52
(− 7.59, 2.55)
Individual level
Socioeconomic status Rich 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  Mild 0.84
(0.45, 1.22)***
− 0.11
(− 0.49, 0.26)
0.5
(0.04, 0.95)*
− 0.31
(− 0.69, 0.06)
0.12
(− 0.43, 0.66)
0.24
(− 0.08, 0.56)
0.28
(− 0.30, 0.85)
0.09
(0.83, 0.64)
1.06
(0.37, 1.74)**
2.53
(− 0.06, 5.06)
  Poor 1.85
(1.45, 2.25)***
0.08
(− 0.31, 0.47)
1.12
(0.65, 0.95)***
− 0.38
(− 0.78, 0.02)
0.39
(− 0.18, 0.97)
0.6
(0.26, 0.94)**
0.41
(− 0.19, 0.01)
0.32
(− 0.46, 1.10)
2.88
(2.16, 3.61)***
7.27
(4.59, 9.95)***
Fathers education Illiterate 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  Primary school/middle school − 0.63
(− 2.04, − 0.77)
0.38
(− 0.95, 1.73)
− 0.66
(− 2.31, 0.98)
0.65
(− 0.69, 1.98)
0.65
(− 1.29, 2.59)
− 0.38
(− 1.52, 0.76)
0.94
(− 1.12, 3.00)
− 0.64
(− 0.27, 1.99)
− 1.23
(− 3.70, 1.23)
− 0.94
(− 10.06, 8.19)
  High school/diploma − 1.14
(− 2.55, 0.27)
0.36
(− 0.94, 1.73)
− 0.83
(− 2.47, 0.82)
0.75
(− 0.59, 2.09)
0.35
(− 1.59, 2.29)
− 0.056
(− 1.2, 1.08)
0.65
(− 1.41, 2.71)
− 0.56
(− 3.21, 2.08)
− 2.06
(− 4.54, 0.41)
− 2.45
(− 11.6, 6.69)
  Bachelor 1.51
(2.93,0.09)*
0.42
(− 0.93, 1.77)
− 0.85
(− 2.5, 0.80)
1.05
(− 0.29, 2.41)
0.24
(− 1.71, 2.20)
− 0.12
(− 1.27, 1.03)
1.18
(− 0.89, 3.26)
− 0.15
(− 2.81, 2.51)
− 1.93
(− 4.43, 0.56)
− 1.57
(− 10.78, 7.61)
  Masters/Ph.D 1.74
(3.18,0.30)*
0.38
(− 0.99, 1.75)
− 0.92
(− 2.60, 0.76)
1.30
(− 0.07, 2.68)
0.68
(− 1.32, 2.67)
0.10
(− 1.07, 1.28)
1.34
(− 0.77, 3.45)
0.44
(− 2.28, 3.15)
− 2.87
(− 5.42, 0.32)*
− 1.20
(− 10.59, 8.19)
  1. Statistically significant negative estimates were presented with italic font
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001