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Table 2 Comparison between patients with normal and elevated leptin levels

From: Serum Leptin in Hospitalized Community-Acquired Pneumonia Children under the Age of Five Years

 Normal leptin level (n = 47)High leptin level (n = 35)P value
Sex
 Male31 (66.0%)23 (65.7%)0.982c
 Female16 (34.0%)12 (34.3%) 
Age12.0 (8.0–48.0)a12.0 (8.0–36.0)a0.922d
Growth percentile#
 < 5th percentile3 (6.4%)2 (5.7%)1.000c
 5th to less than 85th percentile35 (74.5%)26 (74.3%)
 85th to less than 95th percentile5 (10.6%)4 (11.4%)
 95th percentile4 (8.5%)3 (8.6%)
Respiratory distress
 RD I0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)< 0.001*c
 RD II30 (63.8%)10 (28.6%)
 RD III17 (36.2%)18 (51.4%)
 RD IV0 (0.0%)7 (20.0%)
Pneumonia severity
 Moderate36 (76.6%)17 (48.6%)0.009*c
 Severe11 (23.4%)18 (51.4%)
CRP (mg/L)10.0 (6.0–18.0)a149.0 (110.0–190.0)a< 0.001*d
Sputum culture positive11 (23.4%)30 (85.7%)< 0.001*c
Organisms in sputum
 No growth44 (93.6%)9 (25.7%)< 0.001*c
 Single organism3 (6.4%)14 (40.0%)
 More than one organism0 (0.0%)12 (34.3%)
Organisms in sputum
 Acinetobacter3 (6.4%)5 (14.3%)0.277c
 Klebsiella4 (8.5%)20 (57.1%)< 0.001*c
 Pseudomonas5 (10.6%)18 (51.4%)< 0.001*c
Admission
 Ward35 (74.5%)6 (17.1%)< 0.001*c
 PICU12 (25.5%)29 (82.9%) 
Needed mechanical ventilation4 (8.5%)11 (31.4%)0.008*c
Duration of mechanical ventilation (days)7.3 ± 3.3b6.5 ± 1.2b0.703e
Hospital stay (days)11.0 (8.0–14.0)a15.0 (11.0–19.0)a< 0.001*d
Mortality0 (0.0%)3 (8.6%)0.074c
  1. aMedian (IQR)
  2. bMean ± SD
  3. cPearson’s Chi square test for independence/Fisher’s exact test
  4. dMann-Whitney test
  5. eStudent’s t test
  6. *Significant at p < 0.05
  7. #Calculated from body weight to length in patients less than 24 months old and from body mass index in those aged 24 months or older [7]