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Table 1 Example of routine immunizations and their non-specific effects on the immune system towards a beneficial response against COVID-19

From: Learned lesson from COVID-19: can routine immunizations be the first line of defense against the next pandemic?

Vaccine Reference (number in the text) Non-specific beneficial effects in the context of COVID-19
BCG Freyne et al. [26] Increases IL-6 and blocks its deleterious effects through inhibiting MCP-1
MMR Pauksen et al. [27] Skew adaptive immunity towards Th2 response
DtaP White et al. [28] Skew adaptive immunity towards Th2 response
Increases Ig E antibodies and increases IL-5
OPV Kučan Brlić et al. [29] Improves innate immunity through potentiating NK cells through reduction of CD155 receptor
  1. Abbreviations: BCG Bacillus Calmette–Guérin, COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, DTaP diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, CD cluster of differentiation, Ig immunoglobulin, IL interleukin, MCP monocyte chemotactic protein, MMR measles, mumps, rubella, OPV oral polio vaccine, Th Thelper