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Table 1 The characteristics of the patients, physical examination findings, and diagnostic protocols

From: The burden of pediatric emergency departments, constipation: a systematic review

  Number Percent
Gender Male 1295 39.6
Female 1976 60.4
History Painful bowel movements 1813 55.4
Constipation 999 30.5
Encopresis 347 10.6
Anal fissure 112 3.4
Physical examination Hard stool in the rectum 1655 50.6
Abdominal mass consistent with stool 1036 31.7
Suprapubic pain 357 10.9
Encopresis 177 5.4
Anal fissure 46 1.4
Imaging None 1060 32.4
X-ray 1325 40.5
USG 886 27.1
Treatment Enema 1557 47.6
IV hydration 775 23.6
Prescription 1138 34.8
Presenting complaints Abdominal pain 1760 53.8
Constipation 571 17.5
Painful bowel movements 269 8.2
Vomiting 204 6.3
Bloody stool 98 3
Urinary tract infection 130 4
Encopresis 177 5.4
Nausea 31 0.9
Others 31 0.9
Readmission Enema 90 5.8
IV hydration or prescription 351 20.4
Result Hospitalization   
Pediatric service 51 1.5
Pediatric surgery Service 112 3.4
Discharged 3107 95.1
Ex 0 0
Transferred 0 0