Skip to main content

Table 1 The major differences between Kawasaki disease and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children

From: COVID-19 in children: an approach for multisystem inflammatory syndrome

Characteristics Kawasaki disease Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children
Age of presentation Less than 5 years Children aged 8–10 years
Gender Male > female Male > female
Fever Present Present
Cutaneous sign Seen in most patients Seen in < 50% of patients
Lymphadenopathy More common Not common
Hemodynamic instability and ICU support Less than 5% of patients develop shock syndrome Present in almost all patients
Cardiovascular complication Symptomatic myocarditis is not common Cardiac dysfunction is seen at presentation; severe myocarditis and pericarditis are more common
Predominant symptoms Gastrointestinal symptoms are not prominent Gastrointestinal manifestations (abdominal pain, diarrhea) present in > 80% patients
Inflammatory markers Neutrophilic leukocytosis is usual Lymphopenia is common; cytokine storm is more severe; extremely high levels of N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide, Troponins and D-dimer
Organ dysfunction Multiorgan dysfunction is not common Multiorgan dysfunction seen
Etiology No identifiable cause Post-infectious syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 serology is usually positive; in seronegative patients, there is usually history of contact with an individual having COVID-19 infection
Management Intravenous immunoglobulin; steroid; interleukin-1 blockers Intravenous immunoglobulin; steroids; interleukin-1 blockers; interleukin-6 inhibitors
  1. SARS-CoV-2 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2, COVID-19 coronavirus disease