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Table 1 Demographic and laboratory data the two studied groups

From: PTPN22 gene and IL2RA rs11594656, rs2104286 gene variants: additional insights of polygenic single-nucleotide polymorphisms’ pattern among Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes

  T1DM (n = 100) Control (n = 50) Test of sig. P
No. % No. %
Sex      χ2 = 0. 0.729
Male 47 47 55 55 12  
Female 53 53 45 45   
Consanguinity      1.27 0.79
 Positive 18 18 10 10   
 Negative 82 82 90 90   
Family history      32.14* < 0.001*
 Positive 45 45 0 0   
 Negative 55 55 100 100   
Age (years)    t = 0.7 0.492
Mean ± SD 8.48 ± 4.514.07 6.83 ± 3.12 6  
Range 2–16 1–14   
Systolic blood pressure (mm/hg)
 Mean ± SD 107.4 ± 6.10 110.0 ± 4.50 t = 3.199* 0.002*
Diastolic blood pressure (mm/hg)
 Mean ± SD 67.78 ± 5.95 67.0 ± 6.44 t = 0.841 0.401
BMI (kg/m2) 18.07 ± 3.12 519.63 ± 4.07   0.831
 Range 12.50–26.00 14.00–27.00 χ2 = 0.593  
Age of onset
 2 years 10  
 > 2–5 years 31  
> 5 years 59  
Duration of illness
 < 1 year 60  
1–5 years 29  
> 5 years 11  
Presentation
 DKA 64 64  
 Classic symptoms 36 36  
HbA1c interpretation
 Impaired 62 62 0 0.0 χ2 = 157.50* < 0.001*
 Good 38 38 100 100.0
HbA1C%
 Min.–max 5.12–14.10 5.38–6.51 t = 14.165* < 0.001*
 Mean ± SD 9.03 ± 2.07 4.94 ± 0.34
 Median (IQR) 9.0(7.2–10.0) 5.85(5.7–6.2)
FBS (mg/dl)
 Mean ± SD 210.52 ± 46.46 91.0 ± 8.76   
 Median (IQR) 200.0(180.0–250.0) 91.0(85.0–98.0)
2-h pp (mg/dl)
 Mean ± SD 257.11 ± 40.31 154.80 ± 11.47   
 Median (IQR) 260.0(220.0–300.0) 155.5(145.0–165.0)
  1. DKA diabetic ketoacidosis, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, χ2 chi-square test, FE Fisher’s exact, IQR inter-quartile range, t Student’s t test, U Mann-Whitney test, p p value for comparing between the studied groups
  2. *Statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05