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Table 4 Level of evidence and grades of recommendation based on study design

From: Egyptian pediatric clinical practice guidelines for urinary tract infections in infants and children (evidence based)

Level of evidence
LE: I a *Systematic review
LE: I b *Level 1 studies masked comparison with a valid reference test, adequate spectrum of pt.
LE: II Level 11 studies (have one of these
*unrepresentative sample
*inadequate comparison with the reference standard
*unmasked comparison, case-control studies)
*Systematic review of level 11 studies
LE: III *Level III studies (have 2 or more described in level II studies) [12]
Grades of recommendations
GR: A *At least one meta-analysis, systematic review, or clinical trial rated 1++, body of evidence of studies rated 1+ with the overall consistency of results
GR: B *Body of evidence of studies rated 2++ applicable to the target, with the overall consistency of results or
*Evidence extrapolated from studies rated 1++ and 1+
GR: C *Body of evidence of studies rated 2+ applicable to the target, with the overall consistency of results
*Evidence extrapolated from studies rated 2++
GR: D *Evidence level 3 or 4 or extrapolated from studied 2+
*CGLs for UTI in children Argon Institute of Health Sciences (1+CS), 2011, SNS CGLs (1+CS) No 2009/01 [12].
  1. Rating evidence level in Egyptian National CGLs was related to its reference guideline as adopted after their permission. AAP used L1, L2, and L3. AAUS used L1, L2, and L3 and GR: A, B, C, and D. EAU/ESPU used L1a, L1b, and L2 and GR: A, B, C, and D