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Table 1 The background characteristics of the adolescents in Qazvin City, Iran, in 2018 (n = 1724)

From: Sources of academic stress among Iranian adolescents: a multilevel study from Qazvin City, Iran

  Male, n(%) Female, n(%)
School type
 Governmental 474 (55.1) 527 (61.0)
 Special 247 (28.7) 177 (20.5)
 Private 139 (16.2) 160 (18.5)
Educational period   
 First 515 (59.9) 388 (44.9)
 Second 345 (40.1) 476 (55.1)
Family socioeconomic status
 High 295 (34.3) 280 (32.4)
 Moderate 305 (35.5) 270 (31.2)
 Low 260 (30.2) 314 (36.3)
Mother’s education
 Illiterate 16 (1.9) 26 (3.0)
 Primary school/middle school 162 (18.8) 204 (23.6)
 High school/diploma 282 (32.8) 311 (36.0)
 Bachelor 272 (31.6) 218 (25.2)
 Masters/Ph.D 115 (13.4) 92 (10.7)
 Missing 13 (1.5) 13 (1.5)
Father’s education
 Illiterate 7 (0.8) 16 (1.8)
 Primary school/middle school 161 (18.7) 194 (22.4)
 High school/diploma 247 (28.7) 274 (31.7)
 Bachelor 262 (30.5) 244 (28.2)
 Masters/Ph.D 170 (19.8) 125 (14.5)
 Missing data 13 (1.5) 11 (1.3)
Mother’s employment
 Government employee 194 (22.1) 154 (18.2)
 Private/self-employed 17 (1.9) 30 (3.5)
 Physician/master 13 (1.5) 6 (0.7)
 Retired 17 (1.9) 16 (1.9)
 Housewife 598 (68.2) 632 (74.6)
 Missing data 38(4.3) 9 (1.1)
Father’s employment
 Government employee 377 (43.8) 356 (41.2)
 Private/self-employed 339 (39.4) 366 (42.3)
 Physician/master 27 (3.1) 22 (2.5)
 Retired 90 (10.5) 91 (10.5)
 Missing 27 (3.1) 1 (3.4)