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Table 1 Characteristics of the PICU and ward patients

From: Serum Leptin in Hospitalized Community-Acquired Pneumonia Children under the Age of Five Years

 PICU group (n = 41)Ward group (n = 41)P value
Sex  1.000c
 Male27 (65.9%)27 (65.9%)
 Female14 (34.1%)14 (34.1%)
Age (months)12.0 (10.0–36.0)a12.0 (8.0–36.0)a0.922d
Growth percentiles#
 < 5th percentile1 (2.4%)4 (9.8%)0.274d
 5th to less than 85th percentile29 (70.7%)32 (78.0%)
 85th to less than 95th percentile6 (14.6%)3 (7.3%)
 95th percentile5 (12.2%)2 (4.9%)
Tachypnea41 (100%)41 (100%)1.000c
Respiratory distress
 RD I0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)< 0.001*c
 RD II10 (24.4%)30 (73.2%)
 RD III24 (58.5%)11 (26.8%)
 RD IV7 (17.1%)0 (0.0%)
Cough39 (95.1%)31 (75.6%)0.012*c
Fever31 (75.6%)19 (46.3%)0.007*c
Wheezes29 (70.7%)28 (68.3%)0.809c
Crepitation29 (70.7%)27 (65.9%)0.635c
Tachycardia26 (63.4 %)8 (19.5%)< 0.001*c
Feeding intolerance32 (78.0%)25 (61.0%)0.093c
GCS13.0 (12.0–14.0)a15.0 (15.0–15.0)a< 0.001*d
Pneumonia severity
 Moderate15 (36.6%)38 (92.7%)< 0.001*c
 Severe26 (63.4%)3 (7.3%)
Serum leptin (pg/ml)235.2 (0–677.6)a0.0 (0.0–0.0)a< 0.001d
CRP (mg/L)120.0 (46.0–189.0)a11.0 (5.0–19.0)a0.001*d
Sputum culture positive29 (70.7%)12 (29.3%)< 0.001*c
Organisms in sputum
 No growth12 (29.3%)41 (100.0%)< 0.001*c
 Single organism17 (41.5%)0 (0.0%)
 More than one organism12 (29.3%)0 (0.0%)
Organisms in sputum
 Acinetobacter6 (14.6%)2 (4.9%)0.264c
 Klebsiella20 (48.8%)4 (9.8%)< 0.001*c
 Pseudomonas15 (36.6%)8 (19.5%)0.085c
Needed mechanical ventilation26 (63.4%)0 (0.0%)< 0.001*c
Duration of mechanical ventilation (days)6.7 ± 1.9b  
Hospital stay (days)15.0 (11.0–19.0)a10.0 (7.0–12.0)a< 0.001*d
Mortality3 (7.3%)0 (0.0%)0.241c
  1. aMedian (IQR)
  2. bMean ± SD
  3. cPearson’s Chi square test for independence/Fisher’s exact test
  4. dMann-Whitney test
  5. eStudent’s t test
  6. *Significant at p < 0.05
  7. #Calculated from body weight to length percentile curves in patients less than 24 months old and from body mass index percentiles curves in those aged 24 months or older