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Table 1 Definition and grading guidelines for each of the histological features to be graded according to the Sydney classification [21]

From: Serum level of some micronutrients in children infected with Helicobacter pylori

FeatureDefinitionGrading guidelines
H. pyloriDensity of helicobacter like organisms overlying epitheliumNone: no curved bacilli
Mild: scattered organisms covering < 1/3 of surface
Moderate: intermediate numbers
Severe: large clusters or a continuous layer over > 2/3 of the surface
ActivityNeutrophil polymorph infiltration of the lamina propria, pits or surface epitheliumNone: polymorphs difficult to find
Mild: < 1/3 of pit and surface infiltrated
Moderate: 1/2 to 2/3 of pit and surface infiltrated
Severe: > 2/3 of pit and surface infiltrated
Chronic inflammationIncrease in lymphocytes and plasma cells in the lamina propriaNone: lymphocytes and plasma cells are present normal in numbers
Mild: mild increase in density
Moderate: moderate increase in density
Severe: severe increase in density
AtrophyLoss of specialized glands from either antrum or bodyNone: absent
Mild: mild loss
Moderate: moderate loss
Severe: severe loss