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Table 1 Socio-demographic and obstetric health characteristics of participants (n = 2611)

From: The risk of low birth weight and associated factors in West Bengal, India: a community based cross-sectional study

Variables Category N (%) LBW, n (%) χ2 (p)
Mother age (years) < 20 736 (28.19) 192 (26.09) 12.873 (p < 0.01)
20 29 1725 (66.07) 340 (19.71)
≥ 30 150 (5.74) 29 (19.33)
Mother height (cm) < 150 770 (29.49) 195 (25.32) 9.539 (p < 0.01)
≥ 150 1841 (70.51) 366 (19.88)
Mother weight (kg) < 45 986 (37.76) 300 (30.43) 75.058 (p < 0.001)
≥ 45 1625 (62.24) 261 (16.06)
Mother BMI (kg/m2) < 18.5 782 (29.95) 224 (28.64) 42.697 (p < 0.001)
18.5-24.99 1548 (59.29) 304 (19.64)
> 25 281 (10.76) 33 (11.74)
Hemoglobin level (g/dl) < 12 1658 (63.5) 452 (27.26) 89.828 (p < 0.001)
≥ 12 953 (36.5) 109 (11.44)
Mother BP Hypotension 947 (36.27) 209 (22.07) 13.523 (p < 0.01)
Normotension 1484 (56.84) 295 (19.88)
Hypertension 180 (6.89) 57 (31.67)
Gestational period < 37 weeks 391 (14.98) 132 (33.76) 41.065 (p < 0.001)
≥ 37 weeks 2220 (85.02) 429 (19.32)
Parity Primiparous 1536 (58.83) 353 (22.98) 10.623 (p < 0.01)
Pauciparous 885 (33.9) 159 (17.97)
Multiparous 190 (7.28) 49 (25.79)
Inter-pregnancy interval < 2 year 369 (14.13) 85 (23.04) 0.611 (p > 0.05)
> 2 year 2242 (85.87) 476 (21.23)
History of chronic medical illness Yes 144 (5.52) 55 (38.19) 25.221 (p < 0.001)
No 2467 (94.48) 506 (20.51)
Illness during current pregnancy Yes 170 (6.51) 47 (27.65) 4.092 (p < 0.05)
No 2441 (93.49) 514 (21.06)
Dietary counseling during pregnancy Yes 1953 (74.8) 398 (20.38) 5.631 (p < 0.05)
No 658 (25.2) 163 (24.77)
Additional diet during pregnancy Yes 1683 (64.46) 333 (19.79) 8.111 (p < 0.01)
No 928 (35.54) 228 (24.57)
Hard physical work during pregnancy Yes 305 (11.68) 91 (29.84) 14.273 (p < 0.001)
No 2306 (88.32) 470 (20.38)
Addition habit Yes 67 (2.57) 16 (23.88) 0.234 (p > 0.05)
No 2544 (97.43) 545 (21.42)
Alcohol intake during pregnancy Yes 34 (1.3) 8 (23.53) 0.085 (p > 0.05)
No 2577 (98.7) 553 (21.46)
Fertility desire Yes 275 (10.53) 61 (22.18) 0.088 (p > 0.05)
No 2336 (89.47) 500 (21.4)
Iron folic acid tablet consumption No 397 (15.2) 127 (31.99) 30.621 (p < 0.001)
Yes 2214 (84.8) 434 (19.6)
No. of iron folic acid tablet consumption < 100 1239 (47.45) 334 (26.96) 41.84 (p < 0.001)
≥ 100 1372 (52.55) 227 (16.55)
ANC follow-up status No 180 (6.89) 50 (27.78) 4.537 (p < 0.05)
Yes 2431 (93.11) 511 (21.02)
No. of ANC visit < 3 597 (22.86) 154 (25.8) 8.521 (p < 0.01)
≥ 3 2014 (77.14) 407 (20.21)
Time of 1st ANC visit 1st trimester 1684 (64.5) 345 (20.49) 2.948 (p > 0.05)
2nd trimester 851 (32.59) 197 (23.15)
3rd trimester 76 (2.91) 19 (25)
Child sex Male 1330 (50.9) 275 (20.68) 1.053 (p > 0.05)
Female 1281 (49.1) 286 (22.33)
Residence Rural 2154 (82.5) 488 (22.66) 9.978 (p < 0.01)
Urban 457 (17.5) 73 (15.97)
Religion Hindu 2357 (90.27) 513 (21.76) 1.117 (p > 0.05)
Muslim 254 (9.73) 48 (18.9)
Cast General 2129 (81.54) 416 (19.54) 25.9 (p < 0.001)
SC/ST 482 (18.46) 145 (30.08)
Educational status of father Illiterate/ able to sign 318 (12.18) 100 (31.45) 21.338 (p < 0.001)
Primary 1129 (43.24) 229 (20.28)
Secondary or above 1164 (44.58) 232 (19.93)
Educational status of mother Illiterate/ able to sign 272 (10.42) 80 (29.41) 13.399 (p < 0.01)
Primary 1297 (49.67) 281 (21.67)
Secondary or above 1042 (39.91) 200 (19.19)
Father occupation Laborers/cultivator 1722 (65.95) 406 (23.58) 13.111 (p < 0.001)
Business/service 889 (34.05) 155 (17.44)
Mother occupation Cultivator 262 (10.03) 81 (30.92) 15.505 (p < 0.001)
Housewife 2228 (85.33) 457 (20.51)
Service 121 (4.63) 23 (19.01)
Housing condition Kanch 996 (38.15) 232 (23.29) 3.122 (p > 0.05)
Semi pacca 631 (24.17) 128 (20.29)
Pacca 984 (37.69) 201 (20.43)
Availability of latrine No 350 (13.4) 108 (30.86) 21.04 (p < 0.001)
Yes 2261 (86.6) 453 (20.04)
Income (Rs) < 1000 673 (25.78) 171 (25.41) 10.116 (p < 0.01)
1000-3000 1630 (62.43) 337 (20.67)
> 3000 308 (11.8) 53 ()17.21
Family size ≤ 4 1172 (44.89) 263 (22.44) 1.148 (p > 0.05)
> 4 1439 (55.11) 298 (20.71)
Socioeconomic status Lower/upper lower 1241 (47.53) 294 (23.69) 15.509 (p < 0.001)
Middle/lower middle 940 (36) 204 (21.7)
Upper/upper middle 430 (16.47) 63 (14.65)